1. Astronauts and cosmonauts have used pressurized spacesuits to explore
the low-pressure regions of space. The pressure inside one of these suits
must be close to that of Earth’s atmosphere at sea level so that the space
explorer may be safe and comfortable. The pressure on the outside of the
suit is a fraction of 1.0 Pa. Clearly, pressurized suits are made of extremely
sturdy material that can tolerate the stress from these pressure
differences. If the average interior surface area of a pressurized spacesuit
is 3.3 m2 , what is the force exerted on the suit’s material? Assume that the
pressure outside the suit is zero and that the pressure inside the suit is
1.01 x105 Pa.
2. A strange idea to control volcanic eruptions is developed by a daydreaming
engineer. The engineer imagines a giant piston that fits into the
volcano’s shaft, which leads from Earth’s surface down to the magma
chamber. The piston controls an eruption by exerting pressure that is
equal to or greater than the pressure of the hot gases, ash, and magma
that rise from the magma chamber through the shaft. The engineer assumes
that the pressure of the volcanic material is 4.0 x1011 Pa, which is
the pressure in Earth’s interior. If the material rises into a cylindrical
shaft with a radius of 50.0 m, what force is needed on the other side of
the piston to balance the pressure of the volcanic material?
3. The largest goat ever grown on a farm had a mass of 181 kg; on the other
hand, the smallest “pygmy” goats have a mass of only about 16 kg. Imagine
an agricultural show in which a large goat with a mass of 181 kg
exerts a pressure on a hydraulic-lift piston that is equal to the pressure
exerted by three pygmy goats, each of which has a mass of 16.0 kg. The
area of the piston on which the large goat stands is 1.8 m2 . What is the
area of the piston on which the pygmy goats stand?
4. The greatest load ever raised was the offshore Ekofisk complex in the
North Sea. The complex, which had a mass of 4.0 x10 7 kg, was raised
6.5 m by more than 100 hydraulic jacks. Imagine that his load could have
been raised using a single huge hydraulic lift. If the load had been placed
on the large piston and a force of 1.2 x104 N had been applied to the
small piston, which had an area of 5.0 m2 , what must the large piston’s
area have been?
5. The pressure that can exist in the interior of a star due to the weight of
the outer layers of hot gas is typically several hundred billion times
greater than the pressure exerted on Earth’s surface by Earth’s atmosphere.
Suppose a pressure equal to that estimated for the sun’s interior
(2.0 x1016 Pa) acts on a spherical surface within a star. If a force of
1.02 N x1031 N produces this pressure, what is the area of the surface?
What is the sphere’s radius r? (Recall that a sphere’s surface area equals
4 p 2 .)
6. The eye of a giant squid can be more than 35 cm in diameter—the
largest eye of any animal. Giant squid also live at depths greater than a
mile below the ocean’s surface. At a depth of 2 km, the outer half of a
giant squid’s eye is acted on by an external force of 4.6 x106 N. Assuming
the squid’s eye has a diameter of 38 cm, what is the pressure on the
eye? (Hint: Treat the eye as a sphere.)
7. The largest tires in the world, which are used for certain huge dump
trucks, have diameters of about 3.50 m. Suppose one of these tires has a
volume of 5.25 m3 and a surface area of 26.3 m2 . If a force of 1.58 x107 N
acts on the inner area of the tire, what is the absolute pressure inside the
tire? What is the gauge pressure on the tire’s surface?